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STUDIES AVAILABLE OF GINGER

Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov

1. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]

The Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on the Flavor and Color of
Grated Ginger.

Yamaguchi K, Kato T, Noma S, Igura N, Shimoda M.

Laboratory of Food Process Engineering, Division of Food Biotechnology,Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University.

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was applied to grated ginger in order to inactivate quality-degrading enzymes in a non-thermal manner. The effects of HHP treatment on the flavor and the color of the grated ginger were investigated just after treatment and during storage. After HHP treatment (400 MPa, 5 min), geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH) was inactivated to less than 5%, but the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was reduced only to 37%. Heat treatment (100 C, 10 min) inactivated GeDH to 43% and PPO to about 10%. In storage, the reduction of geranial, neral, and citronellal to the corresponding alcohols was observed in the untreated and the heat-treated ginger, while it was not in the HHP-treated grated ginger. In the HHP-treated sample, terpene aldehydes almost disappeared without the formation of the corresponding alcohols. Browning was not observed immediately after HHP treatment, while it was complete in the heat-treated sample. The color change during storage appeared to reflect the residual activity of PPO.

PMID: 20944393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


2. Curr Med Chem. 2010 Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Disposition Pathways and Pharmacokinetics of Herbal Medicines in Humans.


He SM, Li CG, Liu JP, Chan E, Duan W, Zhou SF.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of South
Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, 12901 Bruce B., Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612, USA.
szhou@health.usf.edu.

Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of Pglycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The
pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including  anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are
available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a
herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this
regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding  of their pharmacokinetic profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies,
further clinical studies to explore their biological fate including the disposition pathways and kinetics in the human body are certainly needed.

PMID: 20939821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


3. J Toxicol Sci. 2010;35(5):663-71.

Protective effect of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) extract on lead
acetate--induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Haleagrahara N, Jackie T, Chakravarthi S, Rao M, Kulur A.

Human Biology Division, School of Medicine, International Medical University,
Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. hsnagaraja@gmail.com

Lead is known to disrupt the biological systems by altering the molecular interactions, cell signaling, and cellular function. Exposure to even low levels
of lead may have potential hazardous effects on brain, liver, kidneys and testes. The efficacy of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) to protect hepatotoxicity
induced by lead acetate was evaluated experimentally in male Sprague - Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 21 days and the effects of concurrent treatment with extract of E. elatior on hepatic lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), total antioxidants (TA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S- Transferase (GST) levels and histopathological changes in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in TA and other antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05) and increase in LPO and PCC (p < 0.05) with lead acetate ingestion. Concurrent treatment with E. elatior extract significantly reduced the LPO and PCC (p <0.05) in serum and increased the antioxidant enzyme levels (p < 0.05) in the liver. Significant histopathological changes were seen in hepatic tissue with
chronic lead ingestion. Treatment with E. elatior significantly reduced these lead-induced changes in hepatic architecture. E. elatior has also reduced the
blood lead levels (BLL). Thus, there has been extensive biochemical and structural alterations indicative of liver toxicity with exposure to lead and E.
elatior treatment significantly reduced these oxidative damage. Our results suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect against lead-induced
hepatotoxicity.

PMID: 20930461 [PubMed - in process]

4. J AOAC Int. 2010 Jul-Aug;93(4):1155-60.

Determination of fumonisin B1 in botanical roots by liquid chromatography with
fluorescence detection: single-laboratory validation.

Oles CJ, Trucksess MW.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition,  Office of Regulatory Science, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD 20740, USA.


The accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility characteristics of a published method for measuring levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in botanical root products were determined by an AOAC single-laboratory validation procedure. Replicates of 10
test portions of each powdered root product (black cohosh, echinacea, ginger, ginseng, valerian, dong quai, and turmeric) at each spiking level (FB1 at 0, 50, 100, and 200 ng/g) were analyzed on 3 separate days. Test samples were extracted  with methanol-acetonitrile-water (25 + 25 + 100, v/v/v). The extracts were centrifuged, the supernatants diluted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)
containing 1% Tween 20 and filtered, and the filtrates applied to an immunoaffinity column containing antibodies specific for fumonisins. After the
column was washed sequentially with PBS and water, the toxin was eluted from the  column with 80% methanol, and the eluate dried by lyophilization. The residue was reconstituted with 50% acetonitrile. FB1 was derivatized with a mixture of
o-phthaldialdehyde and mercaptoethanol by using an LC autoinjector. Separations were performed with an RP-LC column, and the FB1 derivative was quantified by fluorescence detection. All root products were found to contain FB1 at <10 ng/g.
Average within- and between-day recoveries of FB1 from the botanical roots ranged from 67 to 95% and from 68 to 100%, respectively. Total RSD values for within- and between-day repeatability ranged from 5.5 to 26.4%. HorRat values were <1.3
for all of the matrixes examined. The method meets the AOAC method performance criteria at levels of >50 ng/g for the seven botanical roots tested.

PMID: 20922947 [PubMed - in process]

5. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010 Nov;16(4):216-8. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

Sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko as an alternative treatment for chronic tonsillitis
to avoid surgery.

Goto F, Asama Y, Ogawa K.

Department of Otorayngology, Hino Municipal Hospital, 4-3-1 Tamadaira, Hino-shi,
Tokyo 191-0062, Japan. Amifumi@bc5.so-net.ne.jp

Sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko (TJ-109) is composed of 9 herbs (gypsum, Bupleurum root, Pinellia tuber, Scutellaria root, Platycodon root, jujube fruit, ginseng root, Glycyrrhiza root, and ginger rhizome). It is a folk medicine that has been  used to treat pharyngitis or acute tonsillitis. The efficacy of TJ-109 for treating patients with chronic tonsillitis was investigated. Ten outpatients who  experienced chronic tonsillitis for more than 2 years were recruited. TJ-109 was  prescribed, and after one year of daily treatment the incidence of acute tonsillitis before and after the treatment was compared. The incidence of acute tonsillitis due to chronic tonsillitis decreased in all 7 patients who were followed up. No adverse events were observed in any of the patients. In conclusion, the herbal medicine TJ-109 effectively reduced the incidence of acute tonsillitis. In some cases, planned tonsillectomy was avoided.

PMID: 20920806 [PubMed - in process]

6. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Oct;12(10):926-7. doi:
10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01241.x.


Response to Fritsche et al. (GINGER study).
Morales J, DeLuzio A.

Comment on:
    Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Feb;12(2):115-23.

PMID: 20920047 [PubMed - in process]


7. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Study on the cold and hot properties of medicinal herbs by thermotropism in mice
behavior.


Zhao YL, Wang JB, Xiao XH, Zhao HP, Zhou CP, Zhang XR, Ren YS, Jia L.

China Military Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, 302 Military Hospital, 100#
the 4th Ring Road, Beijing 100039, PR China.

It is a common sense that chewing a mint leaf causes a cold feeling, while masticating a piece of ginger root is associated with a hot sensation. The
Traditional Chinese Medicine has termed this phenomenon as cold and hot properties of herbs and applied them in treating certain human diseases
successfully for thousands of years. Here, we have developed an Animal Thermotropism Behavior Surveillance System, and by using this device and other
approaches, we not only verified the existence of, but also characterized and quantitated the cold and hot properties of medicinal herbs in animal behavioral experiments. The results suggested that the hot and cold properties of herbal drugs indeed correlated with the alteration of animal behavior in search for residence temperature.

PMID: 20883763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

8. Molecules. 2010 Sep 3;15(9):6231-43.

Identification and concentration of some flavonoid components in Malaysian young
ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) varieties by a high performance liquid
chromatography method.

Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A.

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia,
UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. upmali@yahoo.com

Flavonoids make up one of the most pervasive groups of plant phenolics. Due to their importance in plants and human health, it would be useful to have a better  understanding of flavonoid concentration and biological activities that could indicate their potentials as therapeutic agents, and also for predicting and controlling the quality of medicinal herbs. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a famous and widely used herb, especially in Asia, that contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In  this study, total flavonoids and some flavonoid components including quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol and naringenin were extracted from the leaves and rhizomes of two varieties of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) at three different growth points (8, 12 and 16 weeks after planting), and analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in order to determine the potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The results showed that Halia Bara had a higher content of flavonoids in the leaves and rhizomes as compared to Halia Bentong. In both varieties, the concentration of flavonoids in the leaves decreased (Halia Bentong, 42.3%; Halia Bara 36.7%), and in the rhizomes it increased (Halia Bentong 59.6%; Halia Bara 60.1%) as the growth period increased. Quercetin was abundant in both varieties. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed high activities (65.7%) in the leaves of Halia Bara at 8 weeks after planting. Results suggested a good flavonoid content and antioxidant activity potential in ginger leaves at 8 weeks after planting. The leaves of these ginger  varieties could be useful for both food flavourings and in traditional medicine.

PMID: 20877219 [PubMed - in process]

9. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibitory potential of ginger extracts against enzymes linked to type 2
diabetes, inflammation and induced oxidative stress.


Priya Rani M, Padmakumari KP, Sankarikutty B, Cherian OL, Nisha VM, Raghu KG.

Agroprocessing &amp; Natural Products Division, National Institute for
Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking  spice and herbal medicine around the world. Gingerols, the major pungentcomponents of ginger, are known to improve diabetes, including the effect of enhancement against insulin sensitivity. In the current study, ginger
sequentially extracted with different solvents&#x2014;namely, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, 70% methanol&#x2013;water and water&#x2014;were screened to determine the variations in phenolic-linked active constituents. The potential of these extracts to inhibit key enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes and inflammation was studied. Phenolic compounds&#x2014;namely, gingerols and shoagols&#x2014;were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ethyl acetate extract showed higher activity compared with other extracts. These  studies indicate that ginger has very good potential for &#x03B1;-glucosidase and &#x03B1;-amylase inhibition relevant for type 2 diabetes management and
cyclooxygenase inhibition for inflammation.

PMID: 20874376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

10. Se Pu. 2010 Jun;28(6):579-89.

[Determination of 215 pesticide residues in ginger using liquid chromatography
coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry]

[Article in Chinese]

Cao J, Pang G, Wang M, Fan C.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian
271018, China.

A multiresidue analytical method was developed for the determination of 215 pesticides in ginger using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray
ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The pesticide residues were extracted from ginger by acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, cleaned-up by a Sep-Pak Vac cartridge, eluted with acetonitrile-toluene (3:1, v/v). The eluate was concentrated to about 0.5 mL with a rotary evaporator, dried with nitrogen at room temperature. The sample was redissolved in an acetonitrile-water mixture (3:2, v/v), then analyzed using LC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring  (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization. The recovery test was conducted at spiked level of limit of quantification (LOQ). The validation results were as follows: the overall recoveries were from 68.1% to 132.6% of which 94.4% of the recoveries were from 70% to 120%, with the relative standard deviations of 0.4%-25.0%. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and the limits of quantification
(S/N = 10) were 0.01-70.45 microg/L and 0.04-234.84 microg/L, respectively. The results demonstrated that this method is simple and with acceptable sensitivity and accuracy to meet the requirements of the multiple pesticide residue analysis. This method is applicable to determine 215 pesticide residues in ginger.

PMID: 20873579 [PubMed - in process]

11. Biofactors. 2010 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Ginger ingredients inhibit the development of diethylnitrosoamine induced
premalignant phenotype in rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis model.

Mansour MA, Bekheet SA, Al-Rejaie SS, Al-Shabanah OA, Al-Howiriny TA, Al-Rikabi
AC, Abdo AA.


Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh
11451, Saudi Arabia.

To investigate the possible antitumor activity of ginger extract against hepatic carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosoamines (DEN) and promoted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats were divided into
four groups with 15 animals in each group. Rats in group 1 (control group) received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline. Animals in
group 2 were given ginger (50 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats in group 3 (DEN group) were injected with a single dose of DEN (200 mg/kg, i.p.), 2  weeks later received a single dose of CCl(4) (2 mL/kg i.g) by gavage as 1:1 dilution in corn oil. Animals in group 4 (DEN-ginger group) received the same carcinogenesis induction protocol as in group 3 plus ginger (50 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 2 weeks before induction of hepatocarcinogenesis and continued throughout the experimental period. DEN-initiated and CCl(4)-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats was manifested biochemically by elevation of serum hepatic tumor markers tested; α-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen. In addition, hepatocarcinogenesis was further confirmed by a significant increase in hepatic tissue growth factors; vascular endothelial  growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hydroxyproline content. A marked decrease in endostatin and metallothonein were also observed. Long-term ginger extract administration 2 weeks before induction of hepatocarcinogenesis and throughout the experimental period prevented the decrease of the hepatic
content of metallothionein and endostatin and the increase in the growth factors  induced by the carcinogen. Moreover, ginger extract normalize serum hepatic tumor markers. Histopathological examination of liver tissue also correlated with the biochemical observations. These findings suggest a protective effect of ginger extract against premalignant stages of liver cancer in the DEN-initiated and CCl(4)-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis model in rats.

PMID: 20872761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

12. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of appetizer administration on plasma leptin level in human volunteers.

Wadikar DD, Premavalli KS.

Defence Food Research Laboratory, Siddartha Nagar, Mysore, India.

The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of appetizer administration on plasma leptin levels of human volunteers. The ginger-based appetizers, namely ginger munch, fruit munch, jeera munch and appetizer drink, developed in the Defence Food Research Laboratory were used for 45 volunteers. Leptin was analyzed using the BioSource enzyme-amplified sensitivity immunoassay kit. The fasting plasma leptin level for men and women ranged between 0.5 and 19.5 ng/ml and between 2 and 36 ng/ml, respectively. The decreased (6-16%) plasma leptin levels after consumption of appetizers indicated their appetizing effect.


PMID: 20860523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

13. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16(26):2935-47.

The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of
hyperlipidemia; a systematic review.

Hasani-Ranjbar S, Nayebi N, Moradi L, Mehri A, Larijani B, Abdollahi M.

Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran
University of Medical, Sciences, Tehran, Iran. mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca.

Objective: This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of hyperlipidemia in human. Methods: PubMed, Scopus,  Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to 11th  May 2010. The search terms were "hyperlipidemia" and ("herbal medicine" or "medicine traditional", "extract plant") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcomeof change in lipid profiles were included. Results: Fifty three relevant clinical trials were reviewed for efficacy of plants. This study showed significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol after treatment with Daming capsule (DMC), chunghyul-dan, Glycyrrhiza glabra, garlic powder (Allicor), black  tea, green tea, soy drink enriched with plant sterols, licorice, Satureja khuzestanica, Monascus purpureus Went rice, Fenugreek, Commiphora mukul (guggul),Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Ningzhi capsule (NZC), cherry, compositie salviae dropping pill (CSDP), shanzha xiaozhi capsule, Ba-wei-wan (hachimijiogan), rhubarb stalk, Silybum marianum, Rheum Ribes and Jingmingdan granule (primrose
oil). Conflicting data exist for red yeast rice, garlic and guggul. No significant adverse effect or mortality were observed except in studies with DMC,
guggul, and Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Emblica officinalis, ginger, and garlic powder (Allium sativum). Conclusion: Amongst reviewed studies, 22 natural products were found effective in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that deserve further works to isolate and characterization of their constituents to
reach novel therapeutic and more effective agents.

PMID: 20858178 [PubMed - in process]

14. Environ Pollut. 2010 Dec;158(12):3612-7. Epub 2010 Sep 18.

Fabrication, calibration and evaluation of a phosphate ion-selective
microelectrode.


Wang JJ, Bishop PL.

University of Cincinnati, 12716 Ginger Wood Lane, Clarksburg, MD 20871, USA.
johnwang1974@gmail.com

To conduct the micro-environment study of flocs in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, a phosphate ion-selective microelectrode wasdeveloped. The cobalt-based microelectrodes have tip diameters of 5-20μm and respond to all the three forms of phosphate ions, namely, H(2)PO(4)(-), HPO(4)(2-), and PO(4)(3-). The calibration curve at pH 7.5 had a slope of 31.5mV  per decade change of concentration and a R(2) value of 0.99. Other characteristics of this microelectrode, such as response time, interferences from pH, ion strength, DO and other anions were also evaluated.

PMID: 20851510 [PubMed - in process]

15. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in
children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy.


Pillai AK, Sharma KK, Gupta YK, Bakhshi S.

College of Nursing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are major adverse effects of chemotherapy. Ginger has been used in postoperative and
pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Data on its utility in reducing CINV in children and young adults are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty chemotherapy cycles of cisplatin/doxorubicin in bone sarcoma patients were randomized toginger root powder capsules or placebo capsules as an additional antiemetic to ondensetron and dexamethasone in a double-blind design. Acute CINV was defined as nausea and vomiting occurring within 24 hr of start of chemotherapy (days 1-4)and delayed CINV as that occurring after 24 hr of completion of chemotherapy (days 5-10). CINV was evaluated as per Edmonton's Symptom Assessment Scale and National Cancer Institute criteria respectively. RESULTS: Acute moderate to
severe nausea was observed in 28/30 (93.3%) cycles in control group as compared to 15/27 (55.6%) cycles in experimental group (P = 0.003). Acute moderate to severe vomiting was significantly more in the control group compared to the experimental group [23/30 (76.7%) vs. 9/27 (33.33%) respectively (P = 0.002)]. Delayed moderate to severe nausea was observed in 22/30 (73.3%) cycles in the control group as compared to 7/27 (25.9%) in the experimental group (P < 0.001).  Delayed moderate to severe vomiting was significantly more in the control group
compared to the experimental group [14/30 (46.67%) vs. 4/27 (14.81%) (P = 0.022)]. CONCLUSION: Ginger root powder was effective in reducing severity of acute and delayed CINV as additional therapy to ondensetron and dexamethasone  in patients receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00940368). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 20842754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]